CBD 101

CBD 101 CBD for Dummies

CBD FOR DUMMIES

Thank you for visiting our CBD education page which will give you enough knowledge about CBD and how it works.

CBD is an abbreviation for Cannabidiol which is derived from cannabis plants.  Unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD contains all the medicinal aspects of the plant without containing psychoactive properties.  In a nutshell, CBD does not get you high or have the side effects associated with marijuana and THC.  

CBD or HEMP  What's the difference? 

The plant Cannabis sativa has two primary species, hemp, and marijuana. Both contain CBD, but there's a much higher CBD percentage in hemp, which also has very low (less than 0.3%) levels of THC compared to marijuana.

So when you hear people talking about or marketing hemp oil, they're referring to oil extracted from the seeds of the hemp plant. The main thing to remember is there are no cannabinoids—CBD or THC—in hemp oil. There are, however, a lot of healthy fats. This is usually used in beauty products for its moisturizing benefits.

Health Benefits of CBD? 

The only CBD pharmaceutical that is currently FDA-approved is Epidiolex, which the agency approved last year for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy. There have been a lot of people who use CBD and swear by it for helping them with a lot of various issues, especially pain management. While there have not been a lot of scientific studies on CBD and going by what people say is merely anecdotal. It is worth noting to speak with a health care professional to see what's right for you.  

What is the Endocannabinoid System?

To understand this system, you have to understand homeostasis.  Homeostasis is simply your body's internal environment.  When it gets thrown out of balance from pain, inflammation, or any other cause - the effect is that your endocannabinoid system goes into action automatically to try to restore normal operation.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a cell-signaling system discovered in the 1990s while researching THC and its effects on humans.  Medical professionals have identified that all humans have an ECS system, regardless of whether they have ever used a cannabis-related product.  The ECS plays a vital role in Sleep, Mood, Appetite, Memory, Reproduction and Fertility.  The three major components of your ECS system are Enzymes (These break down the CBD), Endocannabinoid Receptors (These are where your body imports the CBD), and Endocannabinoids (These are molecules manufactured by your body to regulate your functions) also known as "endogenous cannabinoids). 

Endocannabinoid System (ECS) Effects

Your body has two types of built-in Endocannabinoid receptors, CB1 receptors in your central nervous system and CB2 receptors in your peripheral nervous system-especially your immunity cells.  When you take CBD, endocannabinoids can bind with either receptor and thus initiate a healing and transformative process.

Anxiety and CBD: It gets thrown around a lot

CBD might be worth trying to manage symptoms of anxiety. It does seem to let your body and nervous system calm down. But remember it is not a one-stop-cure-all miracle fix. Again, the best approach is to talk it over with your health care provider.

Tinctures, edibles, vape, oils, lotions and on and on. What's the best way to take CBD? I would ask first, what is your goal for taking CBD?

Are you taking it for relief of joint muscle pain? Maybe you do not want to eat or ingest anything. The biggest differences between tinctures, edibles, and vape pens are the speed of delivery and how long the effects last. Vape relief is faster but wears off faster too, usually in about two hours. Tinctures and edibles take longer to start working, but they tend to last four to five hours. 

OK, so I'm ready to try CBD. What do I look for?

Has it been third-party tested?  All CBD sold in the USA should be accompanied by a third-party laboratory report that not only verifies all the labeled ingredients but also verifies the milligrams of CBD contained in each product.  Most of the cost of CBD products is the CBD content, so this is very important.

Does it claim to cure any disease? If so, I would pass on this and find some other brand.  The holistic properties of CBD have been proven over and over again in medical journals and clinical trials, but per the FDA, these products cannot be labeled as such.

Legality of CBD. Always check your local laws as they could and can change. CBD is legal in forty-seven states with the following four exceptions: Iowa, North Dakota, and Nebraska.  Many states have restrictions like 

  • CBD content must be derived from Hemp Plants, not Marijuana plants in most states, but more liberal states like California allow CBD from marijuana-based sources.  Since we are based in Dallas, Texas, all of our CBD products are derived from hemp plants.
  • Certain states like Idaho require that CBD products contain 0% THC.
  • Maine, Michigan, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio do not allow edibles or beverages.
  • Missouri only allows the sale of CBD products to those who have been diagnosed with epilepsy.

 CBD Legality By State 2021

Traveling with CBD:  Make sure you keep your CBD products in their original packaging that clearly demonstrates legality and <3% THC content.

 

Drug tests and CBDAccording to www.webmd.com, as long as the products you ingest contain pure CBD, you are not at risk of failing a drug test. The general medical consensus is that this is not a concern unless you are able to take extreme amounts and have had an extremely uncommon and intensive test such as gas chromatography.

 

CBD and Pets:  As all living things have an endocannabinoid system (ECS), CBD will have the exact same effect on pets as it will on humans. One study performed by the National Institute for Health (NIH)  sought to assess the safety, anti-inflammatory properties, and anti-pain properties of CBD oil in dogs with osteoarthritis. Researchers gave dogs doses of 2 or 8 milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg) of body weight.  Eighty percent of the dogs showed improvement in their pain and mobility, as measured by two veterinary resources — the canine brief pain inventory and the Hudson activity scale. 

 

CBD Verbiage, Terminology, Nomenclature.

 

2-AG

The most abundant endocannabinoid found in the body, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a member of a group of molecules that play a complex and important role in various bodily processes including immunity and inflammation. Like anandamide, 2-AG is thought to help regulate appetite, immune system function, and pain management by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system receptors.

Anandamide

A major endocannabinoid naturally found in the body. Like 2-AG, anandamide is part of the body’s endocannabinoid system and alters functions like cognition, learning, memory, mood, other higher intellectual functions, and certain motor functions. THC is thought to produce psychoactive effects and alter these same functions in the body because it mimics the way anandamide interacts with the endocannabinoid system. 

—B—

Bioavailability

This term refers to the degree and rate at which a drug is absorbed by the body’s circulatory system. It’s an important measurement tool because it determines the correct dosage for non-intravenously administered drugs. For drugs, supplements, and herbs administered non-intravenously (such as through consumption, inhalation, or topical application) bioavailability designates the fraction of the ingested dose that eventually gets absorbed.

Learn more: What Is Bioavailability?

BROAD-SPECTRUM

Products labeled “broad spectrum” fall somewhere between full-spectrum and isolate formulations. Because they contain terpenes and other beneficial cannabinoids, broad-spectrum products offer some benefits of the entourage effect — without any THC. For those who can’t have or don’t want to have any traces of THC in their system, broad-spectrum products can be a better choice than isolates. But they’re not as effective as full-spectrum products.

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Cannabidiol

Also known as CBD, cannabidiol is one of the naturally occurring cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. It’s the second most prevalent active ingredient in cannabis, accounting for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. CBD does not produce psychoactive effects. Cannabidiol interacts with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), part of the nervous system that’s thought to play a regulatory role in all kinds of bodily functions, including mood, sleep, and appetite. According to a 2017 report from the World Health Organization, there is evidence that CBD is an effective treatment for epilepsy.

Cannabinoid

Not to be confused with cannabidiol (cannabidiol is a cannabinoid, but not all cannabinoids are cannabidiol), A cannabinoid is one of the diverse chemical compounds that act on the endocannabinoid system receptors found throughout the body. These molecules include the endocannabinoids produced naturally in the body and phytocannabinoids from cannabis. The two most notable cannabinoids are THC and CBD.

Cannabis sativa

Indigenous to Eastern Asia, this flowering herbaceous plant has been farmed throughout recorded human history. It is farmed for marijuana as well as the industrial hemp used in CBD products. In addition, hemp fiber, hemp seed oil, and food products are also derived and harvested from different parts of the plant.

Capsule

A delivery method for CBD oils and extracts that’s easy to swallow (literally). Capsule products resemble the gel pills you’re used to seeing at your local pharmacy.

 

CBD

Cannabidiol’s popular nickname. You’ll see CBD attached to many products, but not all are created equal.

 

 

Certificate of Analysis (COA)

A document from an accredited laboratory certifying the amount of cannabinoids in a given product. This proof of analysis exists to benefit the consumer as much as the producer: It guarantees quality assurance for both parties. Reviewing the COA is a pro-consumer move that helps you avoid mislabeled, low-quality, or fake products. A reputable company will always provide one.

CO2 extraction

The carbon-dioxide extraction process uses changes in temperature and pressure to create phase changes in carbon dioxide, gently drawing out the plant’s beneficial components. The result is a clean, safe oil with a long shelf life.

See also: Extraction

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Delivery method

How a drug enters the body in order to produce the desired therapeutic effects. The delivery method of a given drug can affect how quickly it starts working and how much of each dose gets absorbed by the body (bioavailability). CBD delivery methods include ingestible capsules, gummies, and tinctures, as well as topical lotions, salves and lip balms.

Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol

Known by the abbreviation THC, this is a primary cannabinoid found in cannabis and the one responsible for its psychoactive effects. It works on endocannabinoid receptors in the brain to release dopamine. Some dislike the “high” feeling or other side effects of this chemical and prefer hemp-based products that contain very little to no THC.

Dietary supplement

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Edible

Any food containing some form of cannabis. Pot brownies are the most classic example, but nowadays, cannabis-infused edibles come in many other forms: candy, coffee, baked goods, martinis, even infused butter and cooking oil.

 

Endocannabinoid system

Also known as the ECS, the main function of this mammalian system is to maintain bodily homeostasis, or keeping the body balanced even when the environment changes. Scientists believe that cannabis is effective, in part, because the phytocannabinoids it contains mimic our endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoid receptors are found throughout the entire body, and the system plays a part in many of the body’s processes, including appetite, stress, sleep, pain, memory, and immune function.

Entourage effect

This phenomenon is all about teamwork: It’s the result of the many components in the cannabis plant interacting together with the human body to produce a stronger effect than any one component on its own. Full-spectrum CBD products combine CBD with other naturally occurring terpenes and cannabinoids (including THC) to be more effective than their isolate counterparts.

Ethanol extraction

Extraction using cold, high-grade alcohol gently pulls all the active compounds from the cannabis plant’s cellulose material, resulting in pure, full-spectrum hemp oil. Oils extracted using this method are further refined via chromatography to remove all remaining traces of ethanol.

Extraction

The process of deriving CBD oil from hemp. There are several methods of extracting CBD from cannabis plants, including CO2 and cold ethanol extraction.

See also: CO2 extraction

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Farm Bill

United States Congress voted at the end of December 2018 to pass the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, more commonly referred to as the Farm Bill. This legislation made CBD products legal to purchase in all 50 states. Under the Farm Bill, industrial hemp (where CBD products are derived from) must contain less than .3 % THC. The power over industrial hemp regulation is shared by the state and federal governments. The Farm Bill also gave the FDA the authority to regulate cannabis products.

FDA

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a regulatory government agency with the power to regulate cannabis and cannabis-derived products since the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill. So far, the FDA has officially approved the CBD product Epidiolex as a treatment for epilepsy. The government’s relationship with the cannabis industry is constantly evolving; Learn more about how the FDA is handling cannabis and CBD products on the FDA’s website.

Full-spectrum

CBD that’s full of all the terpenes, cannabinoids, flavonoids, and fatty acids found in hemp, all of which have a therapeutic value of their own and help create what’s known as the entourage effect. Basically, full-spectrum CBD can give you every potential benefit the plant has to offer.

—H—

Hemp

A distinct strain of the Cannabis sativa plant that is often grown for industrial use. Hemp used in CBD products must contain less than .3% THC.

Hemp seed oil

Derived from industrial hemp. Hemp seed oil is created by pressing the plant’s seeds. It has no therapeutic benefits but is often used as a dietary supplement and low-saturated-fat cooking oil.

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Industrial hemp

Hemp grown specifically for the industrial uses of its products, including textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastic, food, biofuel, and medicine (including CBD). Hemp and its products are legal in the U.S. under the Farm Bill as long as they contain less than .3% THC.

CBD Isolate

These products are 99% CBD. To manufacture an isolate, everything contained in the plant matter is removed — including any traces of THC and other beneficial cannabinoids — until only a powder or crystalline form of CBD is left. This means that isolate users will not benefit from the entourage effect.

—M—

Marijuana

A general term that refers to female Cannabis sativa plants that produce flowers containing phyto-cannabinoids that are used for their medicinal and psychoactive properties.

Microdosing

A technique that involves consuming small servings of CBD supplements throughout the day. Micro-dosing can be beneficial because it allows the user to maintain stable CBD levels in your system around the clock. This consistency can be important for those who use CBD for its balancing properties.

—N—

Nutraceutical

Also known as dietary supplements, these are food-derived products that offer extra health benefits in addition to their existing nutritional value. These products that contain nutrients derived from food products and are often concentrated in liquid, capsule, powder, or pill form. Dietary supplements are regulated by the FDA.

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Organic

Foods and products derived from farming methods that promote ecological balance and restrict the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and synthetics. These growing practices promote the health of both the environment and the consumer. Organic products particularly appeal to those who support sustainable farming and care about the safety and quality of what goes into their bodies.

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Phytocannabinoid

The chemical compounds in cannabis plants that mimic the endocannabinoids naturally produced by the body. CBD and THC are examples of phytocannabinoids, but there are at least 113 different phytocannabinoids in the cannabis plant, each producing unique effects in the body.

Potency

A measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity in the body. A high-potency drug evokes a larger response even at a low dose, while a low-potency drug evokes a small response at low concentrations and requires higher doses for a similar effect.

Psychoactive

A property that changes brain function by interacting with the central nervous system and results in altered perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior. THC is the primary psychoactive component in cannabis plants.

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Salve

An ointment made from the cannabis plant to be applied directly to the skin.

 

Strain

A cannabis plant bred for certain characteristics and use in medicinal, recreational, or industrial purposes. Industrial hemp, for example, is a strain bred to contain more CBD and less THC than other varieties, making it useful for medicinal products and legal under the Farm Bill.

Sublingual

From the Latin for “under the tongue,” a method for administering drugs by mouth. It involves placing a substance under the tongue, where it can be readily absorbed into the blood vessels and begin to circulate throughout the body.

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Terpene

Aromatic oils that lend flavors such as berry, mint, and pine to different cannabis strains. More than 100 different terpenes have been identified, and every cannabis strain has its own terpene profile. The effects of any given terpene may be amplified in the presence of other compounds (also known as the entourage effect).

THC

Tincture

A delivery method, typically administered sublingually, that quickly absorbs and distributes throughout the body.

Topical

A delivery method where product is applied to the skin, typically as a salve or lotion, over the areas where they’re needed.

 

References:

Healthline: A Simple Guide To The Endocannabinoid System

https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-for-dogs#conditions-and-uses

https://www.theveritasfarms.com/blog/cbd-glossary/